Friday, 27 November 2015

Raghuvamsha Sarga 1 | Shloka 10

In this shloka, Kalidasa is wrapping up the introduction.

तं सन्तःश्रोतुमर्हन्ति सदसद्व्यक्तिहेतवः |
हेम्नः संलक्ष्यते ह्यग्नौ विशुद्धिःश्यामिका‌‍ऽपि वा ||

taṁ santaḥ śrotumarhanti sadasadvyaktihetavaḥ |
emnaḥ saṁlakṣyate hyagnau viśuddhiḥ śyāmikā'pi vā ||

Clever persons [ सदसद्व्यक्तिहेतवः सन्तः] who can distinguish good from the bad just like how fire can distinguish whether gold is pure or impure, deserve to listen this . 

ಚಿನ್ನದ ಶುದ್ಧತೆಯನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸಬಲ್ಲ ಬೆಂಕಿಯಂತೆ ಒಳ್ಳೆಯದನ್ನು ಮತ್ತು ಕೆಟ್ಟದನ್ನು ಗುರುತಿಸಬಲ್ಲ ಸಂತರು ಇದನ್ನು ಕೇಳಲು ಅರ್ಹರು. 

सोने की शुद्धि अथवा अशुद्धि का मापन जिस पर अग्नि में जलाकर किया जाता है, उसी प्रकार काव्य के गुणदोषादि का निर्णय सन्त लोग ही करते हैं। अतएव कवि का यह काव्य सहृदयी सन्त लोगों के द्वारा ही सुनने योग्य है। मन में मलिनता और पूर्वाग्रह से ग्रस्त बुद्धि वाले लोगों के लिये तो यह समय का व्यर्थयापन ही है।

some thoughts:

- Ancient India was known for its prowess in metallurgy. Kalidasa is dated to the gupta dynasty period (who built the iron pillar at mehrauli ) and hence, his knowledge in these subjects are not surprising. From my understanding the fire assay test is one of the most fool-proof methods to ascertain the purity of gold. 

- If you are spending your time reading this blog instead of spending it on page-3 gossip, you qualify to continue further :P

This verse closes the introduction by Kalidasa. From the next verse (next week), we start with the story of King Dileepa (father of Raghu)

Raghuvamsha Sarga 1 | Shloka 9

In the last four verses, we saw Kalidasa describe the qualities of the kings of the Raghu dynasty. In the next two verses, Kalidasa concludes the introduction.

रघूणामन्वयं वक्ष्ये तनुवाग्विभवोऽपि सन् | 
तद्गुणैः कर्णमागत्य चापलाय प्रचोदितः ||

                  raghūṇāmanvayaṁ vakṣye tanuvāgvibhavo'pi san |
                   tadguṇaiḥ karṇamāgatya cāpalāya pracoditaḥ ||

I am now going to tell [वक्ष्ये] about such (discussed in shlokas 5-8) kings of the raghu dynasty [रघूणामन्वयं ] because the qualities of these kings have motivated [प्रचोदितः] me to involuntarily [चापलाय ] write about them although I don't have a vocabulary that can match their glory. [तनुवाग्विभवः]

ರಘುವಂಶದ ರಾಜರುಗಳ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಈಗ ಹೇಳಲು ಹೊರಟಿರುವೆನು. ಇವರ ಗುಣಗಾನವನ್ನು ಕೇಳಿದ ನಂತರ ( ಅದಕ್ಕೆ ಸರಿಸಮವಾದ ವೈಭವದಿಂದ ಕೂಡಿರುವ ಶಬ್ದಗಳು ನನ್ನ ಬಳಿ ಇಲ್ಲವಾದರೂ ) ನನ್ನ ಮನಸ್ಸು ತಾನಾಗಿಯೇ [ चापलाय ] ಇವರ ಕುರಿತಾಗಿ ಹೇಳಲು ಉತ್ಸುಕವಾಗಿದೆ [प्रचोदितः].

इस प्रकार से वाणी का वैभव कम होते हुए भी उनके महान् गुणों को सुनकर चपलता से प्रेरित बुद्धि वाला मैं रघुकुल के राजाओं का वर्णन करता हूँ |

Saturday, 14 November 2015

Raghuvamsha Sarga 1 | Shloka 5-8

The next 4 verses describe the qualities of the Raghu dynasty. Kalidasa later says that with kings who are so great, he could not resist writing about them! 

After much pondering, I felt that these verses needed to be dealt with much more emphasis as these shlokas are nothing but pure gems. (especially given the contemporary political situation! ) So, I will not be discussing them in the manner we followed before.

Each shloka as you might have noticed by now has 32 syllables and is divided into quarters [पादम्]. The metre employed here by Kalidasa [छन्दः] is known as the anushtup [अनुष्टुप्]  and is one of the most popular metres in sanskrit. In each quarter, Kalidasa describes one quality of the kings of the Raghu dynasty and hence, we will go through the shlokas in 16 points. Kannada and Hindi summaries will follow at the end. The meaning and 'some thoughts' will be merged into one! 

And so it begins...

1. सोऽहमाजन्मशुद्धानाम्

Perhaps a dunce like me [सोऽहं]  is writing about people who are pure right from birth. [आजन्मशुद्धाः].

What does this mean? Children must not be accidents of birth! Instead, the couple must beget children after they are in a position to raise them in all aspects (mentally, physically, emotionally and financially). Such a child will naturally grow up in an environment that is full of positivity and will imbibe values so that it will tread the path of  righteousness (dharma) the rest of its life. This is very important in general, more so for an heir-apparent. 

2. आफलोदयकर्मणाम्

People who have the will to work relentlessly till they reach their objective. 

This should taken mostly in the context of serving their subjects. The grievances of the subjects should be addressed immediately and efforts should be undertaken until the completion of the task. 

3. आसमुद्रक्षितीशानाम्

People who are the rulers of a vast territory that stretches from one ocean to another.

Ruling over vast territories commands the respect of other rulers and deters invasions. For example, Alexander was hesitant to take on the mighty Magadha empire which ruled over most parts of India. Raghu of this dynasty is said to have ruled a territory that stretched from central asia to South India. 

4. आनाकरथवर्त्मनाम्

Those who could drive their chariots till the heavens when necessary.

This refers to the defense capabilities of the rulers. These kings were capable of even challenging Indra if needed. Many of these kings are supposed to have lent their support to Indra in his battles against demons.

A ruler that controls such vast territories must maintain an exceptionally powerful military force. This is more to deter enemies or internal rebellion than to attack other territories. It is strategically sensible to maintain a strong army as deterrence is more likely to achieve stability and peace. A weak military can result in fragmentation of a country and gives scope for immoral forces to seize power which is detrimental to the society. 

This is in clear contrast to the current of view of ahimsa/non-violence i.e. to totally give up war! For example, the Maurya empire that included rapidly declined after Ashoka sd giving up war totally led to a slack in the maintenance of their military force.

5. यथाविधिहुताग्नीनाम् 

Those who perform ritual-fires as ordained by religious duty.

Timely sacrifices [ यागः - sacrifice is a poor translation that English has to offer ]  to gods ensure timely rains, harvest,etc. These are needed for the well-being of the subjects and hence, the duty of a great king. Also, after the succesfull completion of yajnas like ashwamedha, vishwajit, etc the king used to distribute wealth and grain to his subjects. People from all walks of the society were welcome and were awarded appropriately by the king. These events also helped in socialization and building goodwill. 

6. यथाकामार्चितार्थिनाम्

Kings who fulfill the desires of their supplicants without having an air of superiority 

These kings were noble enough to not look down upon their supporters / subjects as weaklings. Anyone who came to the king asking for a favor was given all the support by the king without any condescension. 

7. यथाऽपराधदण्डानाम् 

Those who punish offenders in a manner proportional to the offense. (and without delay)

In the Hindu system of administration, the king is the custodian of justice. The objective of punishment was to 
- incapacitate i.e. a rebellion by a subordinate king was quelled without haste, etc
- deter i.e. the offenders were made an example so a similar offense does not recur.
- rehabilitate - The punishment should help the offender atone for his mistakes and take corrective action. 
The king's duty was to award a punishment that brings back the offenders back into the path of धर्म or righteousness by creating a situation to atone for his misdeeds. प्रायस्चित्त or atonement is a self-imposed punishment taken up by the offender either for personal satisfaction or that of the society (to be accepted again in its folds). 

There is an interesting set of thoughts that I read in Avarana by S L Bhairappa on the nature and degree of atonement. 
1. If the offense was committed unknowingly, the प्रायश्चित्त can be minimal. 
2. If the offense was committed with the full knowledge of the person, the प्रायश्चित्त needs to be severe enough that the person does not commit the mistake again
3. If the offense was committed knowingly and openly ( publicly in a manner provoking others to commit the same offense ), then the प्रायश्चित्त  should not only be severe but also be undertaken in public. 

Even in the kingdom of Mysore (ruled by the wodeyars till 1947), the district commissioners and other high-ranking officers played an important role in administering justice (in the name of the king). It can be observed that the parties accepted this justice and the officers rarely abused this power vested in them. (With great power comes great responsibility was drilled into them). This system was speedy and as the proceedings were carried out in public where people could suggest to the officer, it was also a democratic one. The intention of the judicial system was not only to punish appropriately but also to bring the quarrelling parties together. Given how our judicial system works, this is very important and relevant. 

8. यथाकालप्रबोधिनाम्

Those who understand the changing times and advocate accordingly. 

It is a common tendency to stick to age old practices that are irrelevant and outdated. The king is expected to constantly change his actions both with times and with situations.  

9. त्यागाय संभृतार्थानाम् 

Those who earn fortunes with the sole intention of giving it up for the sake of the needy. 

As a king this is a very important quality. For example, the taxes collected were supposed to be used solely for the purpose of the subjects. Kalidasa has a verse on this later in his description of Raghu. He tells that Raghu collected taxes from his subjects only to give it back similar to the sun which sucks water from the ground only to give it back in the form of rain! 

10. सत्याय मितभाषिणाम् 

Those who speak less (as much as the situation requires) for the sake of truth. 

When a person speaks a lot, it is possible that he exaggerates or lies. (by probability ? ) Hence, the king must speak minimally and only after giving it much thought. 

For the GoT fans out there: Tywin?

11. यशसे विजिगीषूणाम्

Those who are ambitious conquerors for the sake of establishing their supremacy.

The objective of a war was only to establish their preeminence. It was not to seek revenge and impose their beliefs, cultures and traditions. Both mythology and history have innumerable instances where the opposing king was restored to his full glory by the victor after due apology or प्रायश्चित्त. I guess Prithviraj Chauhan followed this but forgot point 8 which was his (and the country's ? ) undoing.

Again for the GoT folk: Aegon the conqueror or even Robert perhaps ? 

12. प्रजायै गृहमेधिनाम्

Those who marry for the sake of begetting a progeny worthy of carrying forward the dynasty. 

The king's duty does not end if he rules the land justly. It is also his responsibility to raise a child capable of continuing the rule in a just manner ensuring that the society does not collapse into chaos. A king must marry with the sole intention of fulfilling this duty towards the society.

If the son is unwilling or unfit to take over the reigns of the kingdom, it is the moral obligation of the king to appoint a worthy successor to the throne. Failing in this duty has been the undoing of many empires in the past. 

The next verse discusses what kings must follow in the four stages (आश्रम ) of life. 

13. शैशवेऽभ्यस्तविद्यानाम् 

Those who learn (and master) studies when they are young. A king is expected to be well-read in the following:

- Veda - the 4 vedas 
- Upaveda
   - Arthashastra - economics, statecraft and strategy
   - Dhanurveda - Archery ( can be modified to weaponry for the present world? )
   - Gandharva veda - Performing arts like music, theatre and dance. 
   - Ayurveda - medicine
- Vedangas
   - Shiksha - phonetics / phonology
   - Kalpa - rituals [ the sulba-sutras which deal about creating altars are a part of this. This mentions pythagoras theorem hundreds of years before him ] 
   - Vyakarana - grammar
   - Nirukta - Etymology
   - Chandas - metre ( for example, the shlokas encountered till now are written in anushtup meter as explained in the beginning)
   - Jyotisha - Science that encompasses both astronomy and astrology. This also includes the measurement of time and space. For example, we see these texts mentioning time scales from 1e-06 to 1e21.

14. यौवने विषयैषिणाम्

Those who pursue material pleasures in their adulthood. 

It is a common misconception that Hinduism promotes the idea of completely giving up worldly pleasures. It advocates that ideally a person must indulge in material pleasures when he must ( i.e. in his youth ) and give it up when he must as evident in the next quarter. 

15. वार्द्धके मुनिवृत्तीनाम् 

Those who retire and lead a life similar to that of sages in their old age

A great king should retire gracefully and pass the baton to the next generation. He should lead a life of simplicity and gradually distance himself from worldly matters. [ vanaprastha ashrama ]. The effects of old age like becoming physically weak and being forgetful prevent a king from functioning efficiently and hence, become a burden on the society. 

Don't you think this is the beauty of our dharma ? A person who is ruling a vast kingdom gracefully gives it up in an instant and retires to the forests. 

16. योगेनान्ते तनुत्यजाम्

Those who give up their bodies through yoga or meditation ( in the end )

These great kings had it in them to decide the time of their death and not vice-versa (like it happens with most of us mortals!). They were mature enough to call it a day! How many of us can do this? 

I think that if the people of our country knew this, we would not have elected the kind of leaders we have now! The standards for being a king are so high and indeed our land is blessed to have produced kings of such great stature. 

The dynasty is referred by Raghu as he is the only one who satisfied all the above criteria. It should be noted that even Rama (of the same dynasty) who is believed to be an incarnation of god himself did not satisfy all of the criteria! 

ಇಂತಹ ( ಮಂದಮತಿಯಾದ ) ನಾನು 
ಹುಟ್ಟಿನಿಂದಲೂ ಶುದ್ಧರಾಗಿರುವ, 
ಫಲಿಸುವವರೆಗೂ ಕಾರ್ಯೋನ್ಮುಖರಾಗುವ , 
ಸಮುದ್ರಗಳ ಅದ್ಯಂತ ವಿಸ್ತಾರವಾಗಿರುವ ಭೂಮಿಯನ್ನಾಳುವಂತಹ, 
ಸ್ವರ್ಗಕ್ಕೇ ತಮ್ಮ ರಥವನ್ನು ನಡೆಸಬಲ್ಲ,
 ಕಾಲಕಾಲಕ್ಕೆ ಹೋಮ-ಹವನಗಳನ್ನು ಮಾಡುವ, 
ನಂಬಿ ಬಂದವರ ಕೋರಿಕೆಗಳನ್ನು ಈಡೇರಿಸುವಂತಹ
ಅಪರಾಧಿಗಳಿಗೆ ತಕ್ಕ ದಂಡವನ್ನುವಿಧಿಸುವ
ಕಾಲಕ್ಕೆಅನುಗುಣವಾಗಿ ಬೋಧಿಸುವ,
ತ್ಯಾಗಕ್ಕಾಗಿಯೇ ಹಣ-ಮುಂತಾದವುಗಳನ್ನು ಗಳಿಸುವಂತಹ,
ಸತ್ಯಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಸಂದರ್ಭೋಚಿತವಾಗಿ (ಕಡಿಮೆ) ಮಾತನಾಡುವಂತಹ,
ತಮ್ಮ ಯಶಸ್ಸಿಗಾಗಿ ಮಾತ್ರವೇ ಯುದ್ಧ ಮಾಡುವ,
ಸಂತಾನಪ್ರಾಪ್ತಿಗಾಗಿಯೇ ಮದುವೆಯಾಗುವಂತಹ,
ಬಾಲ್ಯದಲ್ಲೇ ಸಕಲ ವಿದ್ಯೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಪರಿಣತರಾದ,
ನಂತರ ಯೌವನದಲ್ಲಿ ಭೋಗಿಸುವ,
ವಯಸ್ಸಾದ ಅನಂತರ ಋಷಿ-ಮುನಿಗಳಂತೆ ಸರಳ ಜೀವನ ನಡೆಸುವ ಹಾಗೂ
ಕೊನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಯೋಗಸಮಾಧಿಯನ್ನು ಹೊಂದುವಂತಹ
ರಘುಕುಲದ ರಾಜರತ್ನಗಳ ಕುರಿತಾಗಿ ಬರೆಯುಲು ಹೊರಟಿರುವೆನು.

अतः मैं (इस काव्य में) उन लोगों का वर्णन करूंगा जो कि जन्म से ही शुद्धचरित्र वाले रहे हैं; जब तक सफलता न मिला जाय, प्रारम्भ किये गए कर्म का त्याग न करने वाले रहे हैं तथा जिन्होंने अपने बाहुबल से समुद्र से लेकर पृथ्वी तक अपने राज्य का विस्तार किया और जिनके रथ की गति स्वर्ग तक थी।

जो सायंप्रातः गार्हपत्य-आहवनीय-दक्षिणा नाम की अग्नियों में तथा राजसूय, सोम, अश्वमेधादि यागाग्नि में जैसा की श्रुति और कल्पसूत्रादि में वर्णित है- उन नियमों के अनुसार विधिपूर्वक तत्परता से हवन करने वाले रहे हैं, योग्य अर्थियों का जो नित्य सत्कार करने वाले रहे हैं, यथापराध दंडविधान करने वाले न्यायमूर्ति रहे हैं और प्रातःकाल समय से जागने वाले रहे हैं (ऐसे राजाओं का मैं वर्णन करूंगा)
सत्पात्र को दान देने के लिये ही धनसंचय करने वाले, बहुत बोलने पर झूठ भी बोल दिया जाता है, इसलिये सत्य ही बोलें- ऐसा जानकर कम बोलने वाले, पुण्य और यश के लाभ की इच्छा से धर्म-दिग्विजय करने वाले और संतति की प्राप्ति के लिये स्त्रीपरिणय करने वाले (ऐसे रघुकुल के राजाओं का वर्णन करूंगा)
जिन्होंने शैशवकाल में सारी विद्यायें अर्जित कर लीं, यौवन में धर्मानुसार भोग्यसुखों का जिन्होंने सेवन किया, वृद्धावस्था में मन को कामनाओं से दूर करके कठिन मुनिवृत्ति का आचरण किया और अन्त में जो योग द्वारा स्वेच्छा से देहत्याग करने वाले रहे हैं (ऐसे रघुकुल के राजाओं का मैं वर्णन करूंगा)


Raghuvamsha Sarga 1 | Shloka 4

In the previous verse Kalidasa tells that he is a dunce who aspires to be a great poet. This verse goes on to justify why he believes he can do the task despite the odds being against him. 

अथवा कृतवाग्द्वारे वंशेऽस्मिन्पूर्वसूरिभिः |
मणौ वज्रसमुत्कीर्णे सूत्रस्येवास्ति मे गतिः ||

athavā kṛtavāgdvāre vaṁśe'sminpūrvasūribhiḥ |
maṇau vajrasamutkīrṇe sūtrasyevāsti me gatiḥ ||

Or perhaps I (Kalidasa) can also be successful [अथवा ] because my worthy predecessors [पूर्वसूरयः] have bored holes in the diamonds [कृतवाग्द्वारम्] i.e. kings of this dynasty [अस्मिन् वंशः] using a diamond-tipped tool (which is their equally brilliant poetical calibre). My job [मे गतिः] is probably as easy as stringing these diamonds into a necklace.

ಇದು ಪ್ರಾಯಶಃ ಸರಳವಾಗಿಯೂ ಇರಬಹುದು ಏಕೆಂದರೆ ಹಿಂದಿನ ಕವಿಗಳು ಈ ವಜ್ರಸದೃಶ ರಾಜರುಗಳ ಕುರಿತಾಗಿ ತಮ್ಮ ವಜ್ರದಂತಹ ಪ್ರೌಢಿಮೆಯಿಂದ ಬರೆದಿರುವರು. ನನ್ನ ಕೆಲಸವು ಈ ವಜ್ರಗಳನ್ನು ಒಂದು ಮಾಲೆಯಾಗಿ ಪೋಣಿಸುವಷ್ಟು ಸುಲಭವಾಗಿದೆ.

जिस प्रकार अतिसूक्ष्म तंतु भी हीरे की सुई द्वारा मणि में बनाये गए छिद्र में कठिनाई से प्रविष्ट हो पाती है, उसी प्रकार हीनबुद्धि वाला मैं पुराकाल के श्रेष्ठ कवियों जैसे वाल्मीकि द्वारा विरचित रामायण में वर्णित इस महान् वंश के अतिदुर्गम काव्यद्वार में प्रवेश कर जाऊँगा। 

अर्थात् पूर्वकाल के वाल्मीकि आदि श्रेष्ठ कवियों के प्रबन्धकाव्यों की सहायता से जिसका वर्णन कठिन है ऐसे महान् रघुकुल का वर्णन करने में समर्थ हो जाऊँगा।

some thoughts:

-  There is a complex metaphor running in this verse. The kings of the fabled dynasty are like diamonds. Also, the previous poets (like Valmiki) who are also as brilliant as diamonds have written about the kings of this dynasty. ( Only a diamond is capable of cutting another diamond! ) Now, because the difficult part is done by these great poets, Kalidasa's work is probably as simple as stringing these  diamonds into one necklace!

- Raghuvamsha is considered by scholars to be his last work. Kalidasa's modesty and at the same time his self-confidence clearly show his maturity and hence, justifies the stance of the scholars.

- This is the same as nanos gigantum humeris insidentes i.e. on the shoulders of giants, stand dwarfs. The discovery of truth is a process where we build upon the contributions of our predecessors. 

PS : This weekend we have 4 bonus shlokas coming up! 

Saturday, 7 November 2015

Raghuvamsha Sarga 1 | Shloka 3

This shloka continues with Kalidasa's modesty:

मन्दः कवियशःप्रार्थी गमिष्याम्यपहास्यताम् |
प्रांशुलभ्ये फले लोभादुद्बाहुरिव वामनः ||

mandaH kaviyashaH praarthii gamiSyaamyapahaasyataam |
praa.nshulabhye phale lobhaadudbaahuriva vaamanaH ||

Continuing his modesty from the previous verse, Kalidasa says that his ambitions are like that of a dwarf [ वामनः ] trying to pluck a fruit that is high-up the tree [ प्रांशुलभ्यम् फलम् ] with stretched out arms! [उद्बाहुः] He calls himself a dunce [मन्दः] who fantasizes himself in the ranks of legendary poets [कवियशः]  at the risk of being mocked [अपहास्यताम् गमिष्यामि ] by the world.

ಹಿಂದಿನ ಶ್ಲೋಕದಲ್ಲಿನ ಅಭಿಪ್ರಾಯವನ್ನು ಮುಂದುವರಿಸುತ್ತಾ, ಕಾಳಿದಾಸನು ತನ್ನನ್ನು, ಚಾಚಿದ ಕೈಗಳಿಂದ [उद्बाहुः] ಎತ್ತರದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಹಣ್ಣನ್ನು [ प्रांशुलभ्यम् फलम् ] ಕೀಳಲು ಯತ್ನಿಸುತ್ತಿರುವ ಕುಬ್ಜ/ಕುಳ್ಳನಿಗೆ [ वामनः ] ಹೊಲಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುತಿದ್ದಾನೆ. ತನ್ನ ಈ ಕಾರ್ಯದಿಂದ, ಮಹಾಕವಿಗಳ ಸಾಲಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಸೇರುವ ಆಸೆಯಲ್ಲಿ (ಭ್ರಮೆಯಲ್ಲಿ?) ಜನರಿಂದ ಅಪಹಾಸ್ಯಕ್ಕೆ ಗುರಿಯಾಗಬಹುದು  [अपहास्यताम् गमिष्यामि ] ಎಂದು ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾನೆ, ಕಾಳಿದಾಸ! (ಇನ್ನು ನಮ್ಮಂತಹವರ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಹೇಳಬೇಕೇ? )

लम्बी कद के व्यक्ति के हाथ में आ सकने योग्य वृक्ष पर लगे फल की प्राप्ति की इच्छा वाले बौने व्यक्ति के द्वारा हाथ को उठाने पर भी असफलता ही हाथ लगती हे और वह उपहास का पात्र बनता हे । उसी प्रकार महान कविजन द्वारा प्राप्त करने योग्य कीर्ति की इच्छा से प्रवृत्त मेरी भी यह चेष्टा उपहास पात्र ही होगी | 

Some thoughts:

- As we do the next couple of shlokas, this shloka's context will become very clear.

- Also, the metaphor of a dwarf trying to get a fruit high up the tree is very appealing to me. Most of us have felt the very same thing many times! However, we should probably give it a try like how kalidasa did! After all this modesty, raghuvamsha went on to become one of the greatest works ever written in Sanskrit! This feeling came up when I had this idea of starting this blog too - kalidasa showed the way! And of course as krishna says - do your work and leave the results to god/destiny.